Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. It is the largest island country in the world by the number of islands, with more than fourteen thousand islands. Indonesia has an estimated population of over 255 million people and is the world's fourth most populous country and the most populous Muslim-majority country. The world's most populous island of Java contains more than half of the country's population.
Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world's second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources, yet poverty remains widespread.
Indonesia is located in a strategic position. It lies between two continents, Asia and Australia and between two oceans, the pacific and the Indian ocean or samudera Indonesia. It also lies under the equator with tropical climate. Because of the position, Indonesia has two seasons, the dry and the rainy seasons. The rainy season is from November to April.
The dry season is from May to October. During the seasons, Indonesia does not have rain. But sometimes, it rains with little rain-fall. The land is dry. Farmers grow another crops, such as: cassavas and corns. It is hot during the season.
The wet season is November to April. During the seasons, Indonesia has much rain. Usually it rains everyday with high rain-fall. The land is wet and muddy. Farmers grow rice. It is cold during the season. The air is humid. And it often happen flood.
The capital of Indonesia is Jakarta, and the government is led by President Joko Widodo, popularly knows as Jokowi, elected in 2014.
Indonesia has the largest economy in Southeast Asia and is one of the emerging market economies of the world. The country is also a member of G-20 major economies and classified as a newly industrialised country. It is the sixteenth largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and is the eighth largest in terms of GDP (PPP). Indonesia still depends on domestic market, and government budget spending and its ownership of state-owned enterprises (the central government owns 141 enterprises) and the administration of prices of a range of basic goods including fuel, rice, and electricity plays a significant role in Indonesia market economy, but since the 1990s, 80 percent of the economy has been controlled by private Indonesians and foreign companies. In the aftermath of the financial and economic crisis that began in mid-1997 the government took custody of a significant portion of private sector assets through acquisition of nonperforming bank loans and corporate assets through the debt restructuring process and the companies in custody has been sold out by privatization several years later. Since 1999 the economy has recovered and growth has accelerated to over 4–6% in recent years. In 2012 Indonesia replaced India as the second-fastest-growing G-20 economy, behind China. However, in 2014 India regained the second spot.
The total population in Indonesia was last recorded at 252.8 million people in 2014 from 88.7 million in 1960, changing 185 percent during the last 50 years.
There are over 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia. 95% of those are of Native Indonesian ancestry. The largest ethnic group in Indonesia is the Javanese who make up nearly 52% of the total population. The Javanese are concentrated on the island of Java but millions have migrated to other islands throughout the archipelago because of the transmigration program. The Sundanese, Malay, and Madurese are the next largest groups in the country. Many ethnic groups, particularly in Kalimantan and Papua, have only hundreds of members. Most of the local languages belong to Austronesian language family, although a significant number, particularly in Papua, speak Papuan languages. The Tionghoa population makes up a little less than 1% of the total Indonesian population according to the 2000 census. Some of these Indonesians of Chinese descent speak various Chinese dialects, most notably Hokkien and Hakka.
Indonesia is a secular democratic country that has a Muslim-majority population. The Indonesian constitution guarantees all people in Indonesia the freedom of worship, each according to his or her own religion or belief. It also stipulates that the state shall be based upon the belief in "the one and only God" (a condition which also forms the first principle of the Pancasila, the Indonesian state philosophy introduced by Soekarno in 1945). However, the government recognises only six official religions (Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism and Confucianism)
Joko Widodo has brought youthful energy and a popular touch to his large and diverse nation, the world's fourth most populous and home to the largest Muslim population of any country. President Widodo, popularly known as Jokowi, rose from humble origins to become a prosperous entrepreneur, the first Indonesian President ever to do so.